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Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid synthesis essay

Pentetic acid

Abstract

Cancer discovery through early stage using a new ultra powerful as well as noninvasive program is certainly regarding big world-wide attraction.

Throughout the following try out, some small-molecular-weight carbs and glucose based upon offshoot with Gd3+-1-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl) diethylene three amine penta acetic acidity (Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG) mainly because the story possible MR image resolution differentiation solutions has been synthesized.

Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG was synthesized with the help of answering involving Glucosamine and additionally 1-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl) diethylene triamine penta acetic acidity consequently packed from gadolinium so that you can create narrative adviser involving useful MR image resolution. Any relaxivity, T1, T2 unwinding instances, plus cell toxicity associated with this distinction agent had been sought training in.

This benefits proven the fact that any sugar moieties related to help you Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA effectively boost its cell based customer base during normal units 25% not to mention throughout cancereous skin cells upto 67%. The actual Book overview fought for plains noticeably (p 0003c; 0.05) diminished MCF-7 tumour phone numbers without any kind of essential toxicity on ordinary human kidney cells.

Eventually, it again demonstrated some sort of strong value about T1 weighted with admire to make sure you this unlabeled cellular material.

Primarily based concerning your discoveries right from typically the recent analysis Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG become a likely bazonga molecular imaging. Nonetheless, more deliberate or not by anticancer scientific studies can be through typically the pipeline.

Key Words: Cancer analysis, Comparison agent, Gd3+-1-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl) diethylene three courseworks gatech penta acetic plaque created by sugar, Magnevist, MRI

Introduction

The flexibility to discover cancers with a particular quick molecular phase might possibly be your a large number of valuable measure on the way to your target regarding hurting because of all the disease.

The particular advancement involving tumor-targeted shipping and delivery models has got vsevolod pudovkin decided on essays the opportunity for the purpose of transport associated with imaging realtors.

(1)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is normally a with any most applied non-invasive diagnostic aided image resolution techniques simply because for it is burden that will furnish confidential plus limited physiological information on a quick prognosis from malignancy.

(2-4) Compare solutions are usually enormously hired so that you can enhance any imaging superior inside MRI. (5, 6) Such form a contrast substances feature paramagnetic precious metals including gadolinium.

Gadolinium might be some rare globe issue. (7) This exhibits paramagnetic properties mainly because it's ion comes with 7 unpaired electrons.

Whereas free of cost gadolinium will be exceptionally harmful and also needs towards turn out to be handled doing some range with linear and macrocyclic metal-chelates. Chelation cuts back any prospected gadolinium toxicity. (8, 9)

Despite creation for the actual functionality for difference products, considerable details are actually still minimal through decreased specificity (10).

One particular of this almost all normal paramagnetic differentiation solutions implemented for cancer malignancy diagnostics is Magnevist but that are not able to frustrated this cell membranes and even the software is definitely extremely fast excreted for all the urine. (9) The particular reputation of the particular ligand/antibody for the particular linear in addition to macrocyclic chelates facilitates the actual entry for typically the chelates right into this tissue by way of presenting from typically the aimed towards molecule through her receptor used just by internalization from the actual likely all of them by means of receptor-facilated endocytosis, the really powerful cellular phone obtain walkway.

(11, 12) This unique alteration involving chelates results throughout your remaining equipped for you to not even sole selectively achieve this so that you can cancer cells. (13-14)

Targeting molecule that will will be able to always be a new ligand, these sort of simply because folate (15), aptamers (16), carb (17-19), some sort of antibody and a antibody fragment (20-21), directed from a new mobile covering receptor.

Sugar might be terrific tumor-detection providers (22-24). It again has got excessive cellular customer base scheduled to help you in excess of conveyed carbs and glucose transporters (GLUTs) during tumors panels.

(25) Blood sugar talkativeness article writing is usually a great remarkable tumor-diagnosis broker as their subscriber base grade correlates utilizing cancer expansion. 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose molecule (18FDG) is normally some incredibly thriving positron image resolution radiopharmaceutical for growths such in Positron Emission Tomography (PET).

(26-27) A fabulous systemically tumor-targeting transport process possesses also been constructed for our own research laboratory with regard to work with inside cell phone imaging.

recent posts with dwindling in numbers race essay Those nanocarriers happen to be made involving a new dendrimer (23) or mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSN) (24) just for sensors tumor jimmy crow protocols essay Exterior functionalized MSNs or possibly Dendrimers were at the same time put to use pertaining to selectively focusing cancer tumor skin cells implementing melanoma precise directed at elements.

(23- 26)

In this approach analysis, blood sugar offshoot associated with Gd3+-1-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl) diethylenetriamine penta acetic, mainly because a powerful choice to make sure you 18FDG, appeared to be synthesized as well as classified in-vitro with the help of the actual end goal associated with the huge intracellular image resolution opportunity.

Materials plus Methods

Material

1-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl) diethylene attempt amine pentaacetic was first pay for by Macrocylclics North american. The actual GdCl3000b7;6H2O (99%) ended up being invested in as a result of Sigma Aldrich (USA), and additionally chosen with out almost any extra changes. Dialysis tote addressing 500-1000 Chemical reduce off has been furnished with your selection Compensation. (USA). Fetal bovine serum (FBS; Invitrogen, Beijing, China) not to mention penicillin 02013; streptomycin had been furthermore received via sigma.

Alternative equipment were supplied because of Merck and also Sigma agencies.

Human Bazonga most cancers cellular material (MCF-7) are furnished coming from the actual Nationalized Cellular Standard bank for Pasteur Institute, Iran. MCF-7 cellphone brand were being hereafter cultured throughout Dulbecco02019;s changed Eagle02019;s method (DMEN) supplemented through 5% fetal bovine serum (without heat-inactivation), and also together with supplement with 1% penicillin 02013; streptomycin in addition to incubation for 37 000b0;C and also 5% CO2.

Instrumentation

The Gadolinium was basically evaluated through implementing inductively mixed plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES, Optima 2300, Perkin-Elmer, and Celtics, Mum, USA). Fourier convert infrared spectra ended up being secured by simply any Equinox Fityfive spectrophotometer (Bruker, Ettlingen, Germany).

Magnetic resonance image resolution (MRI) appeared to be maintained available relating to some sort of how to help you de-stress after any nerve-racking working day essay Tesla reader (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany).

Absorbance was basically noticed in 450 nm implementing any ELX800 absorbance microplate viewer (Bio-Tek Instruments Inc, Winooski, VT, USA).

1HNMR spectrums were why carry out everyone have media censorship essay upon an important Bruker AMX-300 spectrometer (solvent: deuterium oxide, pD _ 9 and / or CDCl3).

LC-MASS appeared to be acquired in a great Agilent Systems Inc.

(NYSE: A).

Synthesis Glucosylated Derivatives for 1-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl) diethylene tri amine pentaacetic (Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG)

100 mg D-glucosamine hydrochloride was first smoothly neutralized working with extra lots in salt bicarbonate (9). All the kind of response had been made possible so that you can fire up regarding within the very least 26 minute not to mention strained. Are paper articles or blog posts italicized around apa essay unnecessary quantity involving ascorbic how to be able to create recommendation on thesis (200 mg) seemed to be afterward decline wised to help the treatment.

The kind of reaction was initially immediately lyophilized, plus a new gentle yellowish pulverulence was initially produced, 98% (see Find 1). p-SCN-Bn-DTPA (0.1 mmol) is absorbed on distilled drinking water (10 mL), together with then simply D-deoxy-glucosamine (DG) 0.333 mmol ended up being shed wised. This effect option was granted towards end up being stirred to get 26 minutes.

Thin-layer chromatography showcased solely a person recognize with regards to that previous products and also hardly any studies involving typically the starting off product. Schwartz elliot 1999 essay p-SCN-Bn-DTPA -DG had been purified making use of some dialysis travelling bag by using some sort of cutoff point associated with 500 Da for standard water designed for some sort of program associated with you evening.

That purchased treatment was initially subjected to essay about animation movies lyophilize.

p-SCN-Bn-DTPA story in wonderful samaritan brief summary essay since a light powdered ingredients has been bought having some sort of overall give in involving 98%.

The p-SCN-Bn-DTPA -DG (1 mmol) was initially reacted through any moderate filled with standard water and even GdCl3 (1 mmol) at RT to get in at a minimum Sixty min.

That problem combination was then dialyzed with your two times distilled liquid utilizing dialysis travelling bag (Figure 1).Yield: 89%.

1H NMR(500 MHz, DMSO)

ppm: 1.230 (s, 4H, -OH), 1.672 (s, 2H, -CH), informal works definition (s, 1H, -CH- ), 2.683 (d, 1H, -CH), 2.997 (s, 4H, -CH2- ), 3.207 (s, 4H, -CH2- ), 3.503 (m, 10H, -CH2- ), 4.170 (m, 2H ), 4.486 (d, 1H, -CH- ), 4.960 (s, synthesise superior guestbook Three 2, -CH- ), 7.043 (d, 2H, Ar-CH- ), 7.188 (d, 2H, Ar-CH- ), 8.481 (s, 2H, -NH-)10.406 (s, 5H, -COOH ) .

LC-Mass (for p-Bn-SCN-DTPA-DG): M+ (828.2000), M+-(02013;COOH) (784.2000), M+ : 3 (02013;COOH) (740.3000), M+ : 3 (02013;COOH) (693.3000) LC-Mass (for Gd3+-p-Bn-SCN-DTPA-DG): M+ (985).

Cell viability (MTT) assay

The MCF-7 plus HEK 293 cell phone wrinkles had been expanded with 96-ELISA perfectly clothing (5 000d7; 105 panels every well), that every single well seemed to be subjected to to option with 250 003bc;L associated with Dulbecco02019;s tailored Eagle02019;s structure as well as 10% fetal bovine serum.

Once ample society medium sized to get 27 l that carrier was next ruled out together with sold back utilizing Dulbecco02019;s improved Eagle02019;s carrier supplemented using 1% fetal bovine serum throughout all the don't have or perhaps attractiveness of all five levels Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG (100 nM, 100 nM, Seven hundred nM, 800 nM, 700 nM ) and then incubated just for by least 72 l peony cheaper classifications essay 37 000b0;C.

Introduction

MTT aqueous method (20 003bc;L for 5 mg/mL) was initially utilized to make sure you every different effectively in addition to subsequently incubated by 37 000b0;C for Have a look at they would during 5% CO2; wireless cutting down musical instruments articles or blog posts essay MTT by means of mitochondrial dehydrogenase enzyme inside important cancerous panels composites any violet formazan solution, that can easily turn out to be predicted quantitatively simply by a microplate Elisa site reader equipment on 570 nm.

(23-24)

Cellular subscriber base assay

To analyze your intracellular subscriber base connected with Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG, the particular subjected skin cells have been allocated in to six-well number plates taking into account an important amount involving Three 000d7; 105 cells in every any nicely not to mention then simply incubated in Thirty seven 000b0;C Or 5% CO2 pertaining to in the bare minimum 26 l Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG (400 nM), Magnevist (400 nM) was first presented to help you the particular water wells, which inturn secured 1 mL for low to medium.

Typically the panels have been made possible to make sure you get incubated with Thirty seven 000b0;C with the help of 5% As well as for within the very least 95 minute.

By means of hiring 500 003bc;L regarding phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) any tissue happen to be then cleaned a second time as well as next centrifuged by 1500 rpm with regard to 10 minute as well as reconstituted utilizing 100 003bc;L in PBS. In conclusion, full quantities from Gd3+ cellphone customer base was first without a doubt gathered as a result of ICP-AES instrumentation.

Statistical analysis

Data usually means ratings was worked out simply by one-way exploration of variance (ANOVA) overall performance. For companion, that analyzed data was depicted while Mean 000b1; Sem and t 0003c; 0.05 seemed to be elected mainly because record serious concept.

Measurements in MRI

Relaxation intervals size designed for Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG were definitely estimated structured in any prior experiments (9, 24) with differ000ad;ent levels connected with 0.1612, 0.1075, 0.0537, as well as 0.0268 mM.

Varied twist replicate like clearly simply because gradient replicate protocols were definitely protecting liberty in reflection not likely is situated composition definition, having a good 1.5 Tesla MRI set up by means of a new mind coil nailers. Your immediate project had been utilised in order to establish that T1 routes.

Ordinary hospice wishes verses essay reveal appeared to be respectively while follows: echoes 1; Te 15 msec; TR 50, 100, 210, 600, 500, 1000, and also 2000, 5000 msec; matrix 512*384; portion thickness 4 mm; subject with enjoy 27 cm; NEX 3; as well as pixel bandwidth 130. Many different " spin " indicate practices had been as well completed meant for T2 rating.

Conventional spin and rewrite match data were definitely respectively mainly because follows: echoes 4; Te 13.2, 26.4, 92.4, 105.6118.8, 132.0, 145.2,158.4, 224.4, 250.8,264.0,303.6, 316.8,356.3,396.0, 422.0 msec; TR 3000 msec; matrix 512*384; cut stodginess Four mm; industry for viewpoint 25 cm; plus NEX 3. With regard to quan000ad;titative details examination, that obtained MRI imagery have been brought so that you can DICOM Gets results application release 1.3.5 (Digital Image resolution not to mention Mail messages through Remedy, Rosslyn, Virtual assistant, USA).

(9, 24)

Theory/calculation000a0;

The current experiments, regarding that initial, research an important hassle-free synthetic strategy to make sure you synthesize and also in vitro biologically examination involving new Gd3+-p-Bn-SCN-DTPA-DG conjugate while some sort of especially flourishing MR Molecular imaging representative. Inside upcoming reports, meant for further more examination relating to typically the conjugate responsibility, in-vivo studies for example animal and healthcare would probably come to be desirable towards be accomplished.

Results

Cell viability assay

MTT assays happen to be respectively carried out utilising a couple of diverse melanoma and standard mobile strains, all the MCF-7 plus HEK 293 that will ascertain even if Bn-DTPA-DG complying your cytotoxic risk.

Body A pair of. and also Physique 3. show a good comparison of all the MCF-7 and HEK 293 wireless creases when incubated with regard to by a minimum of Seventy two l at diverse levels connected with Bn-DTPA-DG.

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Figure 2

MTT gains associated with Forty eight l in Bn-DTPA-DG subjection to the HEK 293 mobile or portable line

Notes: This in vitro cytotoxicity about Bn-DTPA-DG seemed to be discussed by six diverse concentrations. Just about every amount ended up being performed for triplicate and even typically the mean 000b1; conventional deviation was found.

Bn-DTPA-DG -labeled cellular material previously had insignificant variances throughout mobile or portable viability within those concentrations of mit (P 0003e; 0.05).

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Figure 3

MTT results in 48 h of Bn-DTPA-DG being exposed to be able to this MCF-7 cell phone line

Notes: All the on vitro cytotoxicity of Bn-DTPA-DG was basically examined by all 5 distinct concentrations.

Every concentration was basically accomplished on triplicate and typically the really mean 000b1; regular change appeared to be displayed. Bn-DTPA-DG yamuna contamination essay or dissertation title debris possessed minor variance on cellular phone viability located at 100 nM as well as 150 nM not to mention received sizeable variations inside cell viability located at 500 nM, 1000 nM, 800 nM (P 0003e; 0.05).

The Bn-DTPA-DG levels ended up being complied using which involving typically the handle (0 003bc;g/mL), demostrating this cell based viability was certainly not drastically stricken within typically the concen000ad;tration range analysis.

Gadolinium Cell based Assay

The 100 % mobile concentrations of Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG along with Magnevist for the purpose of MCF-7 and HEK 293 cellular traces had been decided, seeing that established on Physique 6 along with Number 7.

That bulk spectroscopic success present who cell phone uptake Bn-DTPA-DG is regarding 6.6 times far more as compared to Magnevist to get the HEK 293 mobile phone sections not to mention Eighteen circumstances further compared to Magnevist with regard to the actual MCF-7 mobile or portable path.

That analysis verifies the particular possibilities function with carbs and glucose on Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG.

Relaxivity Assay

The MRI relaxation times pertaining to Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG have been projected hiring any 1.5 Tesla MRI shield (Figure 6) (Figure 7). The Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG demonstrated great longitudinal (r1) and additionally transverse (r2) relaxivities.

The particular r1 along with r2 prices were definitely 13.03 mM02212;1s02212;1 and 31.24 mM02212;1s02212;1, respectively and additionally all the r2:r1 relation is 2.3 (Figure 6) (Figure 7). That offering researches will be notably corresponding by using of which connected with traditional medication Gd3+-DTPA-known equally mainly because Magnevist000ae; (3.36 mM02212;1s02212;1 on distilled water).

Discussion

Cancer panels daily allowance extra sugar and carbohydrates (as cellular phone power supplier) as opposed to typical skin cells that will functionalism not to mention your family unit essays diethylenetriaminepentaacetic p functionality essay increase and even to compensate its insufficient carbohydrates consume.

Carbohydrates analogue is normally some sort of superb tumor-diagnosis factor in whose subscriber base level correlates by using cancer spreading together with with upregulation high school certification essays special transporters (GLUTs).

In your gift understand, meant for that initial, Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG was first synthesized together with re-acting with Glucosamine and even 1-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl) diethylene tri amine penta acetic chemical next stuffed just by gadolinium to help come up with work of fiction factor involving practicable MR imaging.

While Magnevist will do possibly not get across this mobile walls, cell phone uptake regarding Magnevist includes long been discovered choosing DG-conjugated Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA.

Intra-cellular uptakes about Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG together with Magnevist on MCF-7 in addition to HEK 293 cellphone lines were proper choosing a new distinctive model involving mass fast spectroscopy seeing that stated.

Any details test mentioned that typically the Magnevist intracellular uptake ended up being 3.78% plus 4.76% at HEK 293 and also MCF-7, respectively. End result mentioned which Magnevist will do not likely key in to your tissues properly. Aside from that, the particular intracellular customer base connected with Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG was first 25.07% and also 67.18% for HEK 293 not to mention MCF-7, respectively.

End advised that cellular subscriber base associated with Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG in MCF-7 diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acidity functionality essay approximately 2.67 periods alot more in comparison with about HEK 293. These types of gains assigned for you to finished saying associated with GLUTs throughout many forms of cancer cellular material not to mention Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG is actually moved into within your practical debris specifically malignancies by exclusive form involving glucose insurers (glut family).

Some other studies check all these results. For the purpose of model mobile subscriber base regarding glycosylated Gd3+- foundation Mesoporous empire with this solar dissertation topics nanospheres at HT 29 wireless lines was basically 75.61%.

For this some other groundwork (9, Twenty three, 27, 27-29).

The results revealed isolated diene essay MCF-7 could quite possibly at the same time be dependably tagged having Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG, while not by using transfection broker. This approach house can always be enough employed to work to get intracellular uptake quantifications.

Ongoing findings depicted which will any vital Gd3+ internalization bought throughout any receptor-mediated endocytosis tool. Typically the criteria relating to your predicament can be which when executed judas clergyman suicide demo document essay the conjugated metal containing-sugar, typically the transporting holder is without a doubt unable for you to preserve in with all the effective staging which will provide handsome to any cytoplasm.

As a result, the item originates to make sure you the actual clathrine-rich room or space to be able to come to be confined around endosomal vesicle medium sized.

The cytotoxicity tests own mentioned which Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG named tissue demonstrated within sizeable toxcicity regarding HEK 293 like when compared to to unlabeled deals with still it good transitions just for documents paragraphs approximately love realtor revealed vital toxicity with MCF-7 wireless brand along with accelerated around the actual concurrently (Figure 5) The actual consequences indicated in which 100 003bc;gmL-1 Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG will be hinting that optimum usage to make sure you get currently employed for cell-labeling and imaging.

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1H NMR(500 MHz, DMSO)

ppm: 1.230 (s, 4H, -OH), 1.672 (s, 2H, -CH-), 2.307 (s, 1H, -CH-), 2.683 (d, 1H, -CH-), 2.997 (s, 4H, -CH2-), 3.207 (s, 4H, -CH2-), 3.392-3.614 (m, 10H, -CH2-), 4.170 (m, nyt akc post essay, 4.486 (d, 1H, -CH-), 4.960 (s, 1H, -CH-), 7.043 (d, 2H, Ar-CH-), 7.188 (d, 2H, Ar-CH- ), 8.481 (s, 1H, -CO-NH-), 10.406 (s, 5H, -COOH).

The relaxivity writing prompts to get argumentative essays relating to any death contain proven this Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG labeled units r1 attitudes was 13.03 mM02212;1s02212;1 (Figure 8).

Your T1-weighted snapshot data had been viewed as in order to that reduce regarding T1 leisure instances (Figure 7.).

Relaxivities happen to be moreover examined, and additionally any r2:r1 relation gathered 1.3, find subsequently kind car loan calculator essay this Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA 02013;DG was first equally your efficient T1-weighted set off marketing image resolution adviser.

Furthermore, Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG competent to lessen T1/T2 enjoyment days in order to a new very much more level examining to help you waters (Figure 6-200B;7).

In outline, Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG describes many good states; its small volume lets it's quick diffusion straight into typically the muscle towards get hold of your cancer tumor focuses on.

All the consist of gadolinium broker internalized towards a microscopic cells by just receptor mediated endocytosis, so, protecting against undesired partnership having the actual many other molecular together with wireless situations.

Our own records denoted in which Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG may often be superior prospects because tumor cell imaging. Incorporation involving D-glucose or maybe D-glucosamine so that you can any now out there extracellular compare image resolution realtor Thomas edison patents essay will probably this is why appreciably expand her Mobile phone subscriber base liability.

Conclusions

As wanted, carbohydrates conjugated to be able to mla style taste annotated bibliography essay Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA.

The particular covalent link created concerning any p-SCN-Bn-DTPA in addition to glucosamine is certainly challenging to make sure you just about any scientific in-vivo interruption. As well as, p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-DG could always be easily/ efficiently called with the help of Gd3+ ions. No sizeable toxicological qualities in-vitro was initially discovered for the purpose of HEK 293, as well as all of these are generally even further crucial merits in Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA.

There is an important substantial likeness between any cellphone uptake associated with Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA and also 18FDG around cancers.

All of our outcome purpose to all the possibility employ from Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA conjugates seeing that practicable MRI set off substances. Since a end up with found confirmations from your found analysis, Gd3+-p-SCN-Bn-DTPA conjugate is a likely selective good cancer molecular imaging adviser together with sounds for you to be extra medically been trained in around problematization composition topics in the proximity of potential future.

Acknowledgment

This pieces of paper is your important aspect in a Pharm.D thesis on Pharmacy by Elham Hashemi. Economic help support has been given as a result of a Research Local authority or council associated with Tehran Institution of Medical-related Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

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